Custom laws in India are govern by the CBEC.customs Duty is a type of indirect tax levied on goods imported into India as well as on goods exported from India. Taxable event is import into or export from India. Import of goods means bringing into India of goods from a place outside India. India includes the territorial waters of India which extend upto 12 nautical miles into the sea to the coast of India. Export of goods means taking goods out of India to a place outside India.
In India, the basic law for levy and collection of customs duty is Customs Act, 1962 and allied rules. It provides for levy and collection of duty on imports and exports, import/export procedures, prohibitions on importation and exportation of goods, penalties, offences, etc.
The Constitutional provisions have given to Union the right to legislate and collect duties on imports and exports. The Central Board of Excise & Customs (CBEC) is the apex body for customs matters. Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC) is a part of the Department of Revenue under the Ministry of Finance, Government of India. It deals with the task of formulation of policy concerning levy and collection of customs duties, prevention of smuggling and evasion of duties and all administrative matters relating to customs formations. The Board discharges the various tasks assigned to it, with the help of its field organizations namely the Customs, Customs (preventive) and Central Excise zones, Commissionerate of Customs, Customs (preventive), Central Revenues Control Laboratory and Directorates. It also ensures that taxes on foreign and inland travel are administered as per law and the collection agencies deposit the taxes collected to the public exchequer promptly.
Types of duties
Under the custom laws, the following are the various types of duties which are leviable.
This is the basic duty levied under the Customs Act. The rate varies for different items from 5% to 40%.
Additional Duty (Countervailing Duty) (CVD):
This additional duty is levied under section 3 (1) of the Custom Tariff Act and is equal to excise duty levied on a like product manufactured or produced in India. If a like product is not manufactured or produced in India, the excise duty that would be leviable on that product had it been manufactured or produced in India is the duty payable. If the product is leviable at different rates, the highest rate among those rates is the rate applicable. Such duty is leviable on the value of goods plus basic custom duty payable. eg. If the customs value of goods is Rs. 5000 and rate of basic customs duty is 10% and excise duty on similar goods produced in India is 20%, CVD will be Rs.1100/-.
Additional Duty to compensate duty on inputs used by Indian manufacturers. This Additional Duty is levied under section 3(3) of the Customs Act. It can be charged on all goods by the central government to counter balance excise duty leviable to raw materials, components and other inputs similar to those used in the production of such good.
Sometimes, foreign sellers abroad may export into India goods at prices below the amounts charged by them in their domestic markets in order to capture Indian markets to the detriment of Indian industry. This is known as dumping. In order to prevent dumping, the Central Government may levy additional duty equal to the margin of dumping on such articles, if the goods have been sold at less than normal value. Pending determination of margin of dumping, such duty may be provisionally imposed. After the exact rate of dump ing duty is finally determined, the Central government may vary the provisional rate of dumping duty. Dumping duty can be imposed even when goods are imported indirectly or after changing the condition of goods. There are however certain restrictions on imposing dumping duties in case of countries which are signatories to the GATT or on countries given “Most Favoured Nation Status” under agreement. Dumping duty can be levied on imports on such countries only if the Central Government proves that import of such goods in India at such low prices causes material injury to Indian industry.
If the Tariff Commission set up by law recommends that in order to protect the interests of Indian industry, the Central Government may levy protective anti-dumping duties at the rate recommended on specified goods. The notification for levy of such duties must be introduced in the Parliament in the next session by way of a bill or in the same session if Parliament is in session. If the bill is not passed within six months of introduction in Parliament, the notification ceases to have force but the action already undertaken under the notification remains valid. Such duty will be payable upto the date specified in the notification. Protective duty may be cancelled or varied by notification. Such notification must also be placed before Parliament for approval as above.
Duty on Bounty Fed Articles:
In case a foreign country subsidies its exporters for exporting goods to India, the Central Government may import additional import duty equal to the amount of such subsidy or bounty. If the amount of subsidy or bounty cannot be clearly deter mined immediately, additional duty may be collected on a provisional basis and after final determination, difference may be collected or refunded, as the case may be.
Such duty is levied on export of goods. At present very few articles such as skins and leather are subject to export duty. The main purpose of this duty is to restrict exports of certain goods. The Central Government has been granted emergency powers to increase import or export duties if the need so arises. Such increase in duty must be by way of notification which is to be placed in the Parliament within the session and if it is not in session, it should be placed within seven days when the next session starts. Notification should be approved within 15 days.